Many thanks to Professor Robert Jackall for providing these documents and history on the Williams in New York program in response to this post.

1. The WNY program is still officially a PILOT program, limited to eight (8) spaces a semester. But it is offered in both fall and spring and the College is committed to it through the academic year 2008-2009 no matter what happens in May 2008 (see below).

2. The program is under review by an ad hoc committee, chaired by Chris Waters. You might want to write him for more details. That committee will present its recommendations to the Committee on Educational Policy and the administration by early spring. In turn, a resolution will be presented to the faculty for a vote at the May 2008 faculty meeting. Although the exact form of the resolution is unknown right now, the thrust of it will be a vote to move the WNY program from its pilot status to permanent program status. There may also may a recommendation to increase the size of the program although this is unclear. In my own view, the optimum size of the program is between 16-18 students per semester.

3. The pilot program has now been offered in the following semesters: fall 2005; fall 2006; spring 2007; fall 2007. It will be offered in spring 2008; fall 2008; and spring 2009. Excluding the very first (fall 2005) semester when there were only 12 applicants, the pilot program has had about three applicants for every two spaces per semester.

4. It is important to note the origins of the program. It was first proposed in 1995, but died an ignoble bureaucratic death at that time at the hands of then president Hank Payne and Dean of Faculty Mike McPherson. It was re-submitted during the curricular renewal of 2000-2001 and was one of only three ideas that survived the CEP’s year-long review–the other two were a proposal for mandatory language instruction and an expansion of the tutorial program. Only the tutorial expansion and the WNY program survived the required two-thirds vote of the faculty in May 2001.

5. It is also important to note the particular definition of “experiential education” that distinguishes the WNY program from all other definitions of that term. Here’s a copy of a memorandum I wrote to Bill Darrow before the recent Lissack Forum on the topic of experiential education, which was noted in Ephblog.


1) See below for the memorandum, speaker roster from past years’ and syllabi for two fall 2007 courses: Social Life of the Metropolis and Arts & the City. All great stuff.

2) Kudos to Professor Jackall for being so open and transparent about the process. Although many faculty and administrators act with similar professionalism, many others do not.

3) Being a big believer in meeting student demand, I would be in favor of expanding the program. But it would be nice to have a better sense of the costs involved. Students appear to get their own room. Given the (implicit) cost of New York real estate, having roommates is not unreasonable. Also, the program currently uses about 1/3 of the available rooms. What sort of lost-income hit does the club take to provide the space? Does the College make up that money? Does the College also provide extra funding for faculty members associated with the program? All of these costs may be reasonable, but it is hard to have an informed opinion without a clear outline of the budget.

4) Comments from readers who have enrolled in WNY (or have friends who have) would be welcome.

5) One worry is the academic seriousness of the program. Although everyone loves a fun-filled vacation in NYC, I would expect these students to spend as much time on academics as their peers in Williamstown (or at Williams-at-Oxford). Do they? Perhaps their internships might replace one class, but two? [UPDATE: See the very bottom on the entry for details on the work expected in these classes. Although the website is fairly opaque on this topic, WNY students each take three classes and do fieldwork as their fourth class. The classes are at least as rigorous in terms of workload as typical classes at Williams. Apologies for implying otherwise.]

6) Huge kudos to whatever faculty members fought against a language requirement for Williams. The fewer requirements that Williams has (besides 32 courses and a major), the better.

Memorandum To Bill Darrow

Dear Bill: I’m writing to ask a favor on behalf of the Williams in New York program. There are several kinds of “experiential education” and I expect that you’ll be discussing all of them at the upcoming Lissack Forum. Among them are:

1. social service learning. Working in old-age homes, hospitals, youth hostels; teaching/tutoring children; and so on.

2. advocacy scholarship. Studies that combine work for some kind of social change with analytical appraisals of those efforts.

3. internships. These are often pre-vocational. But they may also be just occasions for young people to gain some practical experience.

4. Gaudino’s uncomfortable learning. Plunging students into wholly unfamiliar situations to aid their self-discovery.

5. fieldwork. Sustained participant observation combined with interviews and conversations over an extended period of time, and coupled with intensive writing requirements within a tutorial format, with the goal of helping students develop the observational/interactional tools to understand other social worlds from the inside-out.

While all of these kinds of “experiential education” are important and worthwhile for students in different ways, the signature of the Williams in New York program is fieldwork as defined above. We chose to center the program on this definition of “experiential education” because:

a. Fieldwork, with variations on the definition above, is now a methodology integral to many disciplines across the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences

b. WNY is a full academic program at Williams College and it is vitally important that the program’s purposes and standards be in full accord with accepted College-wide curricular standards. By making fieldwork the core of the WNY program, we are embracing a definition of “experiential education” that is broadly understood and accepted by Williams faculty as a valid academic enterprise.

Bill, I hope that you can point out to the Lissack Forum WNY’s particular understanding of “experiential education” and differentiate our approach to it from the many other important ways that students can learn from first-hand experience. Paula Consolini, the Director of Experiential Education, will be
attending your forum. Paula has been intimately involved with WNY from its May 2001 approval by two-thirds of the Willams faculty and can speak directly to these issues.

With best wishes, Bob

Craft & Consciousness roster of speakers from fall 2005, fall 2006, and fall 2007

Craft & Consciousness
Williams Club, unless otherwise noted
All seminars are 4:00 p.m.–6:00 p.m., unless otherwise noted

A sociological examination of how craft shapes consciousness. How and in what ways do work experiences shape habits of mind, sensibilities, moral rules-in-use, ways of seeing and knowing, images of our society, and world views? How do men and women in different occupations and professions establish criteria of validity and reliability to assess their work experiences? How do they develop and internalize rules for discernment that enable them to sort through multiple and always conflicting versions and representations of social reality? How do they make moral judgments on complex business, political, and social issues? How and with what results do common work experiences shape close-knit occupational communities in a great metropolis? The course will pay particular attention to the functionally interconnected but experientially disparate occupational worlds of New York City.

The course will host men and women from a wide range of occupations and professions–from police detectives to policy analysts, journalists, filmmakers, artists, educators, attorneys, corporate executives, and scientists–to discuss their work and work worlds with students. Several Williams alumni and alumnae will participate in the course. Format: discussion seminar. Requirements: full participation in the seminar, term paper.

Williams in New York, Fall 2005
Craft & Consciousness

W September 21. Robert Margolis ’78. Independent Filmmaker. Discussed his new release: The Definition of Insanity.

W September 28. Herbert A. Allen ’62. Allen & Company. Dinner followed.

W October 5. John Kifner ’63, Senior correspondent, New York Times.

W October 12. Detective Mark Tebbens and Detective Garry Dugan, NYPD. The two detectives are the protagonists of the book by Robert Jackall, Wild Cowboys: Urban Marauders & the Forces of Order (Harvard University Press, 1997; paperback 2005). Filmmaker Jessy Terrero and filmmaker/actor Vincent Laresca also attended and participated in the seminar.

W October 19. Assistant District Attorney Elizabeth Lederer, Chief, Trial Bureau 80, District Attorney of New York and Assistant United States Attorney Daniel Levy ’92, Southern District of New York on the dilemmas of prosecutorial work.

W October 26. Arthur Levitt, Jr. ’52, former chairman of the American Stock Exchange, former chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission, author of Take on the Street.

W November 9. Charles W. Johnson, Parliamentarian of the United States House of Representatives, Emeritus, and Peter Willmott ’59, former chairman of the Executive Committee, Williams College Board of Trustees, current Chairman of the Board of the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. Paul Neely ’68 was an active participant in the discussion.

W November 30. Laurel Blatchford ’94, Chief of Staff, NYC Department of Housing Preservation and Development and Tim Ross ’87, Research Director, Vera Institute, talked about their careers in public policy-making in the city.

Williams in New York, Fall 2006
Craft & Consciousness

1.W September 13. Bethany McLean ’92. Author of The Smartest Guys in the Room.

2.W September 20. Detective Gennaro Giorgio and Assistant District Attorney Warren Murray, Chief, Trial Bureau 50, District Attorney of New York.

3.W September 27. Jerry Carlson ’72. Professor of Film Studies at CUNY. Host of City Cinematheque.

4.W October 4. Herbert A. Allen ’62, Chief Executive Officer, Allen & Company.

5.Th October 5. Stephen R. Kappes, Deputy Director, Central Intelligence Agency.

6.W October 11. Glenn Lowry ’76, Director of MOMA.

7.W October 18. Dr. Phil Landrigan, Chairman of Department of Community Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, and Dr. Miki Rifkin, Head of the Humanities and Medicine Program, Mount Sinai Hospital.

8.W October 25. Stephen Harty ’73. Chief Executive Officer of Bartle Bogle Hegarty.

9.W November 1. Kimberly Kirkland ’83, Franklin Pierce Law School, and Duffy Graham ’83, Savitt & Bruce.

10. W November 8. John Kifner ’63. Senior Correspondent, New York Times.

11.M December 5. Congressman Mark Udall ’72.

12.Th December 7. Adele Horne ’91. Filmmaker.

13.Sat December 9. Timothy Shaw ’89. Chef, French Culinary Institute.

Williams in New York, Fall 2007
Craft & Consciousness

1. W 12 September. Herbert A. Allen ’62, Allen & Company. Seminar meets at 711 Fifth Avenue. Restricted to students in the fall 2007 program.

2.W 19 September. Jack Wadsworth ’61. Morgan Stanley, San Francisco

3.W 26 September. Bridget Brennan. The Special Narcotics Prosecutor for the City of New York

4.W 3 October. John Kifner ’63. Senior Correspondent. New York Times

5.W 10 October. Austin Francis Muldoon, NYPD, and Edmund Hartnett, Police Commissioner, Yonkers

6.W 17 October. Glenn Lowry ’76, Director, Museum of Modern Art. Seminar meets at MoMA 3–5 p.m.

7.W 24 October. Ricardo Casta๏ฟฝeda, Chief, Department of Psychiatry, Bellevue Hospital

8.W 31 October. Steve Jenkins, Vice President, Fairway Markets, and Professor Darra Goldstein, Williams College, editor of Gastronomica

9.W 7 November. Charles W. Johnson, Parliamentarian Emeritus, United States House of Representatives, and Peter Willmott ’59

10. W 14 November. Panel presentation by Melissa Barton, Nichole Beiner, Lauren Bloch, Emily Fowler-Cornfeld, Craig Hand, Elizabeth Kantack, Rebekkah Marrs, and Nicole McNeil, all Williams College 2009, on their fall 2007 field experiences in the Williams in New York program. All field sponsors are invited to this session and to a dinner following at the Williams Club. 5:30 p.m. Each student will give a succinct, lively, five-minute oral presentation about his/her fieldwork experiences during the semester.

11.W 28 November. Stacy Cochran ’81, film director

12.W 5 December. Clayton Spencer ’77, Vice President for Policy, Harvard University.

W@NY 303: The Social Life of the Metropolis.

Wednesday 10-12:30 unless otherwise specified.
CUNY Graduate Center
365 5th Avenue
Room 8304–unless otherwise specified.

Professor Philip Kasinitz
Office: 6112.07
[Contact details removed — DK]

“When it is good, New York is very, very good. Which is why New Yorkers put up with so much that is bad”. Ada Louise Huxtable.

This course is an introduction to the sociology of New York City. Through a series of readings, discussions and visits we will examine aspects of the New York’s social, political and cultural life, with special attention to its varied neighborhoods and communities and the ways in which the physical use of space and architecture shape, and are shaped by, the social relationships among the City’s diverse people. We will begin with an historical overview of New York–how it became the city that it is. We then explore the City’s economic structure and its changing population– focusing in particular on race relations and the incorporation of new immigrants and their children. We will then explore the importance of urban planning and modern architecture, the struggles over public space, the intersection of arts, entertainment and commerce, and the impact of the events of “9-11″ on the city’s future. We will conclude by asking what, if anything, is distinct about contemporary urban life in general and New York City’s social and cultural life, in particular.

Students will be expected to complete five written products, of two types:

1.Two essays which will directly respond to readings and to the visits we will make. While these will address assigned questions, they should be synthetic and draw on a variety of readings as well as your experiences in the city. The first will be assigned on October 10 and due on October 24. The second, will be assigned on November 14 and due November 28th.

2.A three part profile of a specific neighborhood in the City. You can choose any area. It can be as small as a census tract, or an aggregate of several census tracts. The first part of this profile will be a statistical overview, examining how the area and its people are like or unlike the city as a whole. This is due on October 3rd. The second will be a qualitative description of the area. This will involve several visits. You will make observations of the area, as well as review secondary literature about it. This will be due on November 7. The final phase will be to write about a specific issue of social problem the effects the area. It should involve some interviews and use of the local press, as well as drawing on the first two parts. This final section is due after class ends, on Monday December 10th.

READINGS: Please arrange to purchase the following books:

Frederick M. Binder and David Reimers, All the Nations Under Heaven: An Ethnic and Racial History of New York City. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995.

Mitchell Duneier, Sidewalk. New York: Farrar Straus and Giroux, New York: 1999.

Nancy Foner (editor), The Wounded City. New York: The Russell Sage Foundation, 2005.

Joshua B. Freeman, Working Class New York. New Press, 2000.

Nathan Glazer, From a Cause to a Style. Princeton: Princeton University Press,

Philip Kasinitz (editor). Metropolis: Center and Symbol of Our Times. New York:
NYU Press, 1995.

James Traub, The Devil’s Playground: A Century of Pleasure and Profit in Times Square. New York: Random House: 2005.

Robert C. Smith, Mexican New York. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

E. B. White This is New York New York: Little Bookroom, (1947): 2000.

September 12. Getting Started. A very quick and somewhat informal introduction to the course and a ridiculously quick romp through pre 20th New York City history with some reflections on the relationship between economic function and the physical, social and political shape of American Cities. Meet at the CUNY Graduate Center.

September 19. The peoples of New York, and how we count them. A visit with Joseph Salvo, New York’s chief demographer at the Population Division of the Department of City Planning

Meet at 9:20 AM in Front of at 22 Reade Street, just north of City Hall. Take the 6 Train to the Brooklyn Bridge Stop.

Readings: The City Planning Web Site:

Briefing Booklet for the “Newest New Yorkers” and “The

Current Population of New York City”: . Both to be read on line.

Also please familiarize yourself with the City Planning Web site and its “Census Tract Fact Finder”. and the Community District Profiles., which you will use in your neighborhood profiles.

September 26 . Immigration and the waves of nations in the 19th, 20th and 21st, centuries. The importance of the immigration heritage. Trip to the Lower East Side. Meet 9:45 at the front steps of the Eldridge Street Synagogue, 12 Eldridge Street. Directions: Take the B & D to Grand Street station. Walk east on Grand to Eldridge Street. Turn right onto Eldridge and walk south 2 ๏ฟฝ blocks. The Synagogue will be on your left. (5 minute walk from subway station). Tour will include a visit to the tenement Museum, 11-12, and the Essex Street Market, and concluding about 1 at Katz’s Deli. Optional, very definitely non-Vegan lunch, to follow.

Readings: Binder and Reimers, All Nations Under Heaven. Excerpts from Cecil Woodham Smith, The Great Hunger, Irving Howe, The World of Our Fathers, Esmeralda Santiago, When I was Puerto Rican to be distributed

October 3rd Experiencing the Modern City. The City, Modernity and Cosmopolitanism. Is there an “Urban Way of Life”? A New York way of life? Literature and Social Science encounter the modern city. Meet at CUNY GC.

Readings: E.B. White, Here is New York; Introduction, Part I, reading by Simmel in Metropolis. Bonnie M. Kahn, Cosmopolitan Cultures (Boston: Athenaeum, 1987), “Introduction,” Charles Baudelaire, The Loss of a Halo,” “Crowds” and “The Eyes of the Poor” from Paris Spleen and Walt Whitman. “Street Yarn”. All to be distributed. (these are really short).

Recommended: Mumford, Wirth, Benjamin, in Metropolis.

Part One of Neigborhood Profile Due.

October 10. The New York Moment in the mid 20th Century. The incorporation of the children of the pre-1924 immigrants remakes the City’s politics and Culture. The expansion of the welfare state. racial conflict and the dilemmas of “Socialism in One City.” The rise and fall of “white ethnic” New York …or is it “working class” New York? Meet: CUNY Graduate Center, room 6112.01.

Readings: Joshua Freeman, Working Class New York, Intro, chapters 1-4; 7, 8; (rest of the book is recommended) Glazer and Moynihan, Beyond the Melting Pot (excerpt) and Bonnie M. Kahn, Cosmopolitan Culture, chapter 6. To be distributed.

First Essay Assigned.

October 17th Remaking the Physical City. How and why New York came to look the way it does. The relationship between the physical city and “community”. Jane Jacobs vs. Robert Moses. Meet at CUNY GC.

Readings: Introduction to Part II, and readings by Jane Jacobs, Le Corbusier and Marshall Berman in Metropolis.

We will also view the film, “The World that Moses Built” in class.

October 24th Rethinking Social Change through Architecture. From a Cause to a Style. Utopianism reassessed. Meet at 9:30 at the Corner of 6th Avenue at 48th Street.

Readings: Nathan Glazer, From a Cause to a Style: Intro, chapters 1-2, 8-9. (3-4, 10-11 are recommended).

We will Visit to Rockefeller Center and other important buildings in the area. Also the Exhibition, Jane Jacobs and the Future of New York, at the Municipal Arts Society–Urban Center. Meet 9:45 at the North East Corner of 6th Avenue at 48th Street.

First Essay Due.

October 31st. The Neighborhood and the Planners: What Happened in East Harlem. Meet in Marina Ortiz in East Harlem, at the Hope Community Inc., 174 East 104th Street.

Readings: Glazer, From Cause to a Style, Chapter 7 Wacquant in Metropolis.

November 7th Taking it to the Streets. The use and control of public space. Gender and race on the sidewalk. Who owns space? Gentrification: the city as frontier, the city as Disneyland. An ethnographic exploration of the use of the streets and public space. Poverty, “social isolation” and the dilemmas of crime and homelessness. Meet at CUNY Graduate Center.

Readings: Siegel and Anderson in Metropolis (the rest of part IV recommended). Duneier, Sidewalk. Pages 3-80; 115-154; 188-216; 231-252; 293-311. (Rest of the book is recommended).

Part Two of Neighborhood Profile Due.

November 14th. The City as Spectacle. The Rise, fall and Dubious Rebirth of Time Square. Meet in Times Square, Location TBA,

Readings: James Traub, The Devil’s Playground, George Chauncey Jr., “Gay Men’s Strategies of Everyday Resistance” in from Taylor, Inventing Times Square, to be distributed.

Second Essay Assigned.

(NO class on November 21. Happy Thanksgiving!)

November 28th After 9-11. Meet at Ground Zero. We will tour the site and Battery Park City with Gregg Smithsimon. Exact Location TBA.

Readings: Nancy Foner (editor) The Wounded City chapters 1-5, 7 and 13. (rest of the book, recommended).

Second Essay Due.

December 5th The Newest New New Yorkers and the City they are now remaking. The resumption of mass immigration and changing racial and ethnic relations Justice versus diversity. Native poverty, immigrant poverty–is there a difference? The children of immigrants start to some of age. Meet at the CUNY Graduate Center.

Readings: Robert C. Smith, Mexican New York; chapters 1-3, 5-6 and 9 (rest of the book, recommended). Kasinitz “Carnival: Community Dramatized” in Riggio, editor, Carnival (New York, Routeldge, 2004), to be distributed.

Part Three Neighborhood Profile Due Monday December 10th.

Arts and the City: A Separate Education

Williams in New York Fall 2007
Arts and the City: A Separate Education
Instructor: Jerry W. Carlson
[Contact e-mail deleted. — DK]

“Other cities are nouns. New York is a verb.”
John F. Kennedy

The legendary city that never sleeps, New York offers an unparalleled array of artistic activities and diversions. As a global city, it boasts a depth of cultural institutions to match the power of its political, financial, and corporate spheres. Yet New York is also the most diverse city in the United States in terms of its immigrant population, which is now more than 50 percent of the city’s residents. Our course will explore the practice of the arts in settings that range from canonical institutions of international repute (i.e. The Metropolitan Opera or MoMA) to sites of vernacular artistic production (i.e. Haitian painting in Brooklyn or Bukharian Jewish music in Queens). We will investigate the realms of music, dance, theater, literature, film, architecture, the visual arts, and a few things that defy easy definition. We will pose questions about the many contexts of creation, presentation, and reception that overlap in the Big Apple. Students will explore these many realms for themselves and bring their “field” experience back to the seminar. “Wandering off a city’s beaten track, like wandering off in a wood,” noted the German social theorist Walter Benjamin, “requires a whole separate education.” And a Metrocard for the subway, New Yorkers will add.

Format: discussion seminar
Requirements: attendance at 12 arts events, 6 field reports, a final synthetic report, and full participation in seminar discussions

Required Texts

“The World Goes to Town” a Special Report by The Economist June 2007 (handout)
Berman, Marshall & Berger, Brian (eds.) New York Calling: From Blackout to Bloomberg
Krause, Linda & Petro, Patrice (eds.) Global Cities: Cinema, Architecture, and Urbanism in a Digital Age (selected handouts)

Structure of the course

Our attention will swing between discussions of arts events attended by students and visits by artist-professionals who will give us their perspective on the practice of their art.

Each student will attend 12 arts events of her/his own choosing yet following guidelines distributed across 6 broad categories. Students may attend events together, as a small group, or alone.

1.visit to a major museum in Manhattan. (i.e. MoMA, The Metropolitan)
2.visit to a gallery or museum outside Manhattan (i.e. The Bronx Museum, a gallery in Williamsburg, Brooklyn)

1.visit to a major architectural monument of New York (i.e. Empire State Building, the Brooklyn Bridge)
2.visit a neighborhood outside midtown Manhattan with a distinct vernacular environment (i.e. Asian Flushing, Queens or Dominican Washington Heights, upper Manhattan)

Film & Video
1.attend a screening at a film festival
2.attend a non-English language film at one of the cities specialized venues (i.e. MoMA, IFC Center)

1.attend a reading & book launch
2.attend a literary conference or spoken word event (i.e. poetry slam)

1.attend an opera, a symphony, or a ballet
2.attend a jazz, ethnic, or world music performance

1.attend a Broadway show
2.attend an Off Broadway, Off Off Broadway or ethnic theatrical show


Each student will write 6 reports about their experiences, one from each category. The reports should be roughly 1000 words and ponder issues of the conditions of creation, exhibition, and reception. See the handout “Key Questions.”

Schedule of Classes & Readings

This schedule will change as we confirm the availability of visitors.

I encourage you to dip into the anthology New York Calling in any order you prefer.

Sept. 10

Sept. 17
Discussion of first field experiences
Read “The World Goes to Town” (handout)

Sept. 24
NO CLASS / Prof. Carlson out of country

Oct. 1
1st visitor
Read pages 1-52 of New York Calling.

Oct. 8
Discussion of field experiences
Read pages 53-101 of New York Calling

Oct. 15
2nd visitor
Read pages 102-148 of New York Calling

Oct. 22
3rd visitor
Read pages 239-286 of New York Calling

Oct. 29
4th visitor
Read pages 287-318 of New York Calling

Nov. 5.
Discussion of field experiences
Read pages 319-349 of New York Calling

Nov. 12
5th visitor
Read pages 1-30 of Global Cities (handout)

Nov. 19
Discussion of field experiences
Read pages 49-68 of Global Cities (handout)

Nov. 26
6th visitor
Reading TBA

Dec. 3
Summary discussion of field experiences

Dec. 10
Synthetic report about field experience due.

UPDATE: Professor Jackall kindly provided details on the workload for these classes.

Craft & Consciousness seminar. Students write 11 (3-5 pages each) papers,
one for each and every session in which guest speakers appear. Then they
write a final major paper (15 pages) using their previous 11 papers as their
data addressing the question: How does craft shape consciousness. There is
preparatory reading for each session with guests. These readings/viewings
are provided by the guests themselves in advance of their sessions. All
told, each student in the course writes between 50-75 pages for this course
alone. See the syllabus.

Fieldwork in New York. Students write 6 tutorial papers (5 pages each), meet
in constantly mixed pairs (never with the same person), and have several
group tutorial meetings. This structure has proven to be much more effective
than the standard tutorial.

Arts & the City. Students have their own cultural budget and they are free
to pick the performing-arts events they choose to see, but with distribution
requirements. They must see 12 performing arts events. They must see an
opera; at least two plays; a classical concert; and jazz. They are not to
use their money on the visual arts, because I obtain passes for them for all
the major museums. Students write response papers (12 in all, one for each
event that they choose to attend). They then write a term paper on some
aspect of the cultural life of the city.

The Social Life of the Metropolis. Students go on several fieldtrips and
write papers on each and every one. They also do a major term paper.

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